Key to orders of Australian millipedes
Millipedes of Australia is going offline in mid-2019. At the time it is taken offline, the website will be "frozen" (no further updates) and will be archived in the Zenodo public data repository.
The taxonomic information in Millipedes of Australia is now largely replicated in MilliBase, which is a taxonomic catalogue for all the world's millipedes.
This website previously had downloadable TSV and KML files with almost 15,000 locality records for named, native Australian millipedes. All the Tasmanian records are now in the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) and most of the non-Tasmanian records can be found either in ALA or GBIF. Please note, however, that records for recently described species may not be listed under the species name in either ALA or GBIF, due to delays in updating of the aggregators' taxonomic look-up tables.
I am retiring from millipede studies in 2019. I am very grateful to the specialists and others who contributed information to Millipedes of Australia over its 13-year lifetime (2006-2019), and I am confident they will offer similar assistance to its global replacement, MilliBase.
— Robert Mesibov, 27 March 2019
There are 8 native and 1 introduced orders of millipedes in Australia. The introduced order is Julida, with at least 9 introduced species including the well-known 'Portugese millipede' Ommatoiulus moreleti.
There are also introduced species in 4 of the native Australian orders. If you key out a millipede to Julida, it is definitely not a native. If you key out a millipede to one of the native orders Polydesmida, Polyxenida, Spirobolida or Spirostreptida, the species may or may not be native.
1a. Less than 5 mm long; 'hairy' with bristles in obvious rows or clumps..........Polyxenida
1b. Usually greater than 5 mm long; if 'hairy' then with no obvious clumps of bristles..........go to 2
2a. Body about half as wide as long, strongly convex on top;
animal can curl up into a ball..........Sphaerotheriida
2b. Body much longer than wide, animal cannot curl up into a ball..........go to 3
3a. Body convex above, flat beneath (A)..........go to 4
3b. Body cylindrical (B).........go to 5
4a. Eyes present, head triangular, body often with colorful stripes..........Polyzoniida
4b. No eyes, head with long 'beak', body usually pale..........Siphonophorida
5a. Adults with 19 or 20 body rings, no eyes..........Polydesmida
5b. Adults with more than 20 body rings, usually with eyes..........go to 6
6a. Adults with 30 or 32 body rings,
usually with 6 long bristles on top of each ring..........Chordeumatida
6b. Adults with more than 32 body rings, body smooth and shiny..........juliform millipedes (below)
The juliform millipede orders are Julida, Spirobolida and Spirostreptida and they can be difficult to separate without looking closely at the head and the first few legs, as shown below.
Spirobolida have a distinct median suture line (arrow) on the clypeus (lower part of the 'face'). This line is missing in Julida and Spirostreptida:
On the underside of the head, the lateral plates (gnathochilarial stipetes, singular stipes, gs) meet broadly along the midline towards the back of the head in Julida, but are well-separated in Spirobolida and Spirostreptida:
The fifth body ring has 2 pairs of legs in Julida and 1 pair of legs in Spirobolida. Spirostreptida have 2 pairs of legs on ring 5 but no legs at all on ring 4:
Image credits: Peter Decker (Julida drawing), Cuong Huynh and Megan Short (Polyxenida), Maria Minor and Alastair Robertson, SoilBugs (whole-animal Siphonophorida).